Glossary

0..9

24h-sampling urine

Particularly suitable matrix for human biomonitoring because chemicals and/or their metabolites excreted with urine have been in direct contact with the organism. Therefore, measurements in urine can give valid information regarding the internal human body burden.

go to document

2cx-MMHP

Mono(2-carboxymethyl-hexyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

go to document

4-Nonylphenol

Alkylphenol with a C9-alkyl-chain

go to document

4-tert-octylphenol

Alkylphenol with a C8-Alkyl-chain

go to document

5cx-MEPP

Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

go to document

5OH-MEHP

Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

go to document

5oxo-MEHP

Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DEHP.

go to document

7cx-MiNP

Mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl)phthalate is a oxidised DiNP metabolite with functional carboxyl-group.

go to document

7OH-MiNP

Mono(4-methyl-7-hydroxyoctyl)phthalate is a oxidised DiNP metabolite with functional hydroxyl group.

go to document

7oxo-MiNP

Mono(4-methyl-7-oxo-octyl)phthalate is a oxidised DiNP metabolite with functional oxo group.

go to document

A

Abiotic factors

Physical and chemical parameters that influence an environment such as light, temperature, current, pressure, salinity, and pH

go to document

aerobic

Term for an oxygen-dependent lifestyle or oxygen-dependent chemical reactions

go to document

Agrarian Ecosystems

Agrarian ecosystems cover more than half the surface area of Germany and thus decisively shape the landscape.

go to document

AHTN

One of the world's most important fragrance among the chemical group of polycyclic musks

go to document

Algicide

also: Algaecide. Chemical agent used to kill algae or control their growth

go to document

Alkylphenol compounds

Class of non-ionic surfactants and their degradation products

go to document

Allergic skin reaction

Allergic reaction of the skin upon contact with certain substances like synthetic fragrances or metals

go to document

alpha-HBCD

Sum of (+)- und (-)-α-HBCD (pair of enantiomers). Minor component of technical HBCD (1–12%). In biota the levels of α-HBCD are normally much higher compared to those of β- und γ-HBCD.

go to document

alpha-HCH

The main constituent of technical HCH

go to document

anaerobic

Term for an oxygen-independent lifestyle or for chemical reactions that work only in the absence of oxygen

go to document

Analytes

Analytes are the subject of investigation and have been chosen to represent substances or groups of substances that describe either a basic physiological state or else toxic or carcinogenic conditions.

go to document

Anopheles

Genus of mosquito of which some species may transmit the tropical disease malaria

go to document

Archive

The long-term storage of environmental and human specimens is regarded as the main task of the German Environmental Specimen Bank: The Environmental Specimen Bank provides a continuous historical record of the state of the environment in Germany.

go to document

Arsenic

Ubiquitous toxic metalloid

go to document

B

Bactericide

Chemical substance intended to kill bacteria

go to document

Beech

As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.

go to document

Benzo[a]pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with five connected six-membered rings

go to document

Benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring with a single sulphur atom

go to document

Benzo[e]pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with five connected six-membered rings

go to document

Benzo[ghi]perylene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with six connected six-membered rings

go to document

Benzyl paraben

The application of benzyl paraben (BzP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

go to document

Benz[a]anthracene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with four connected six-membered rings

go to document

beta-HCH

Most persistent HCH-isomer with the highest potential for biomagnification

go to document

bioaccumulation

Increase in concentration of a substance in an organism

go to document

Bioaccumulation potential

Ability of a substance to enrich in organisms independent of the uptake route (surrounding medium, food)

go to document

bioavailability

Difference between the concentration of a substance an organism is exposed to and the amount which is ingested and absorbed

go to document

Biocide

Chemical agent capable to destroy living organisms

go to document

Biocides and plant protection products

Chemical agents against harmful organisms and for plant protection

go to document

biodiversity

Biological diversity

go to document

biomagnification

Increase in concentration of a substance in an organism through dietary uptake

go to document

Biomagnification potential

Ability of a substance to enrich in the food web

go to document

Biosphere Reserve

Extensive protected areas (natural and precious cultural landscapes) that have been recognized in the UNESCO Programme “Man and the Biosphere” (MAB) established in 1976

go to document

Bisphenol A

Commercially important precursor of polymers like polycarbonates and epoxy resins

go to document

Blood plasma

Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in that chemicals are being accumulated

go to document

Blue mussel

One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea

go to document

Bream

Bioindicator in rivers and lakes

go to document

Butylbenzyl phthalate

Only phthalate of commercial importance with differing side chains, one of them representing a benzyl group

go to document

C

Cadmium

Rare metal which in nature is mostly associated with zinc ores

go to document

Carbon content

Basic element for all living organisms and constituent of minerals, e.g. limestone

go to document

Carcinogenicity

Property of a substance or radiation to trigger or exacerbate cancer

go to document

Chlorohydrocarbons

Group of organic compounds with at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom

go to document

Cholesterol

Essential steroid and indicator for disorders of the lipid metabolism and for the risk of vascular calcification, heart diseases and stroke

go to document

Chromium

Naturally occurring transition metal

go to document

Chronic toxicity

Toxic effects caused by repeated doses of or continous exposure to a substance over a long period of time

go to document

Chrysene + Triphenylene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with four connected six-membered rings

go to document

Cobalt

Naturally occurring transition metal

go to document

Collective, group

Here: group of test persons of one sampling site

go to document

Common bladder wrack

Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea

go to document

Common spruce

A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.

go to document

Conductivity

Indicator for renal function

go to document

Congener

Chemical compounds with identical basic structure but different substitution patterns

go to document

Copper

Common metal widely used by humans

go to document

Coronene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with seven connected six-membered rings

go to document

Creatinine

Break-down product of creatine phosphate in muscle and indicator for renal dysfunctions

go to document

cx-MCPP

cx-MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono-(7-carboxylate-4-methyl) heptylester is a secondary metabolite of DINCH®.

go to document

cx-MPHxP

Mono(propyl-6-carboxyhexyl) phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DPHP.

go to document

D

d13C

Measure for the enrichment of the stable carbon isotope 13C in the food web

go to document

d15N

Measure for the enrichment of the stable nitrogen isotope 15N in the food web

go to document

DDT and metabolites

Toxic and persistent organochloropesticide

go to document

Degree of needle density

Sum of needle mass fractions of all age-groups in percent

go to document

Density (urine)

Indicator for renal function

go to document

Developmental toxicity

Potential of a substance to affect growth and development of organisms

go to document

Di(2-propylheptyl)phthalate (DPHP)

Analytically difficult to grasp

go to document

Di-n-butyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate

go to document

Di-n-octyl phthalate

Structural isomer of DEHP

go to document

Di-n-pentyl phthalate

A phthalate, which might soon be subject to more severe regulation

go to document

Diastereomers

Molecules with identical molecular formula but different structures that are, however, not mirror images of each other

go to document

Dichotomous

Divided into two parts, plant shots split into two branches

go to document

Dicyclohexyl phthalate

Phthalate with two cyclohexane rings as ester rests

go to document

Dieldrin

Very effective insecticide that was widely used as contact and stomach poison for soil insects like termites, grasshoppers and beetles and for textile pests until the early 1970s

go to document

Diethyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate

go to document

Diethylhexyl phthalate

Formerly the world's most important plasticizer among the chemical group of phthalates

go to document

Diisobutyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate whose use in packaging materials for food has been withdrawn voluntarily by the industry in 2007

go to document

Diisononyl phthalate

Mixture of phthalate diesters differing slightly in branching of the alcohol chains and main substitute of DEHP as plasticizer

go to document

Dimethyl phthalate

Short-chain phthalate

go to document

Dioxins

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). Persistent and highly toxic organic pollutants

go to document

Dry weight

Reference value for contaminant contents, based on the weight of dried material

go to document

E

Earthworm (Aporrectodea longa)

As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).

go to document

Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris)

As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).

go to document

Ecosystems

The investigations are carried out in 6 ecosystem types.

go to document

Ecosystems close to conurbations

Ecosystems close to conurbations, or urban-industrial ecosystems, are areas of human activity where natural factors are in part significantly modified or annulled and, especially in built-up areas, only function in very fragmented ways.

go to document

Eelpout

As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.

go to document

Enantiomers

Molecule pair with identical molecular formula but laterally reversed steric configuration (mirror images of each other)

go to document

endocrine disrupting activity

Potential of a substance to act like a hormone and disturb the physiological equilibrium of the endocrine system of animals and humans

go to document

Endocrine disruptor

Natural or synthetic substance that acts like a hormone (hormonally active agent) and thereby disturbs the physiological balance of the endocrine system of animals and humans

go to document

Environmental quality standard (EQS)

Means the concentration of a particular pollutant or group of pollutants in water, sediment or biota which should not be exceeded in order to protect human health and the environment

go to document

EPA-List

16 EPA-PAH. List of 16 PAH which have been classified as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency and are commonly analysed in environmental samples as representatives of the whole group of PAH

go to document

Equivalent diameter

Measure for the size of irregular shaped particles which is, for instance, used in the determination of particle sizes in soils and sediments

go to document

Ethyl paraben

Ethyl paraben (EtP) is a preservative which is used in cosmetics and food. In the European Union (EU) methyl paraben and its natrium salt are listed in the regulation of food additives (Regulation (EU) No. 1129/2011) as E numbers E214 and E215.

go to document

EU-List

List generated by the EU and the Scientific Committee Food (SCF) comprising 15+1 priority PAH which are regarded as representative of the whole group of PAH

go to document

Eutrophication

Increase in concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem which leads to extensive growth of plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms like cyanobacteria

go to document

F

Feral pigeon

A pigeon species home in nearly every city.

go to document

Fluoranthene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring

go to document

Forestry ecosystems

Almost a third of Germany is covered in forest, most of it under productive forestry management.

go to document

Fungicide

Chemical or biological agent intended to kill fungi or fungal spores or inhibit their growth

go to document

Furans

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Persistent and highly toxic organic pollutant

go to document

G

Glyphosate

Widespread herbicide whose risk potential for health and the environment is currently under discussion

go to document

H

Heptyl paraben

The application of heptyl paraben (HeP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

go to document

Herbicide

Chemical substance used to control unwanted plants (weeds)

go to document

Herring gull

Inshore, the herring gull mainly feeds from the sea: upon fish, mussels, and crabs.

go to document

Hexabromocyclododecane

Brominated flame retardant in polystyrene foams and other plastics

go to document

Hexachlorobenzene

Fungicide which was mainly used in seed treatment and as wood and timber preservative

go to document

Hexachlorocyclohexane

Several isomeric compounds among the group of chlorinated hydrocarbons

go to document

Hexamoll® DINCH®

Important substitute for phthalates

go to document

HHCB

The world's most important fragrance among the chemical group of polycyclic musks

go to document

homeostasis

Self-regulation

go to document

Homogenate

pooled sample consisting of combined cryogenic material of a specific matrix, e.g. whole organisms like earthworms or organs like fish livers which have been mechanically disrupted and finely ground at cryogenic temperature

go to document

Human samples

Human body fluids and hair.

go to document

I

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with five six-membered rings and one five-membered ring

go to document

Inorganic species

Bonding form and oxidation state of elements, used mainly for metals and metalloids

go to document

Insecticide

Chemical agent intended to kill insects and their development stages

go to document

Iron

Naturally occurring transition metal

go to document

iso-butyl paraben

The application of iso-butyl paraben (iBuP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

go to document

iso-propyl paraben

The application of iso-propyl paraben (iPrP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

go to document

Isomers

Chemical compounds with identical molecular formula but different structure (constitutional- or structural isomers) or with different spatial positioning of the atoms (stereoisomers)

go to document

L

Lead

Naturally occurring poisonous heavy metal

go to document

Limnetic samples

Suspended particulate matter and animal samples from rivers and lakes.

go to document

Lindane (gamma-HCH)

Highly effective insecticide that was banned from agricultural use in 2002 and restricted in pharmaceutical use in 2007

go to document

Lipid content

Parameter to normalise concentrations of lipophilic substances

go to document

Lipophilicity

Lipophil = “fat-loving”. Property of a substance to dissolve in fats, oils, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or to solve fats and oils itself

go to document

Lombardy poplar

A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.

go to document

M

Magnesium

Naturally occurring non-toxic alkaline earth metal

go to document

MAK

Maximum concentrations at the workplace (Maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentrationen)

go to document

Malaria

Tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The main symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of fever which may be fatal.

go to document

Manganese

Naturally occurring transition metal

go to document

Marine ecosystems

The structure and function of marine ecosystems are not the only factors to take into consideration when analysing marine organisms. All major changes at sea also induce changes in terrestrial ecosystems. The seas serve to regulate the weather, as a transport network, as a source for numerous food and mineral substances and as the final link in the chain of ecosystem loading.

go to document

Marine samples

Samples of marine-animals, sea weeds and seabirds.

go to document

Matrix

Sample material, e.g. bream liver, bream muscle, soft bodies of mussels

go to document

MBzP

Mono-benzylphthalate is the primary metabolite of Butylbenzyl  phthalate (BBzP) resulting from elimination of the butyl group.

go to document

MCHP

Mono-cyclohexyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DCHP.

go to document

Median

In statistics the numerical value which halves a distribution of size ranked measured values

go to document

MEHP

Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is the primary metabolite of DEHP after cleavage of one alcohol group.

go to document

MEP

Monoethyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DEP.

go to document

Mercury

Naturally occurring highly toxic transition metal, which is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure

go to document

Metabolism

Metabolism of chemical substances by cells

go to document

Metabolite

Intermediate or product of metabolic processes

go to document

Metalloid, semi metal

Chemical elements which can not be clearly assigned to metals or non metals regarding their physical and chemical properties

go to document

Metals

Eighty percent of all elements on earth are metals

go to document

Methyl paraben

Methyl paraben (MEP) is a preservative which is used in cosmetics and food. In the European Union (EU) methyl paraben and its natrium salt are listed in the regulation of food additives (Regulation (EU) No. 1129/2011) as E numbers E218 and E219.

go to document

Methyl-triclosan

Product of methylation of triclosan

go to document

Methylmercury

Organometallic compound that is naturally formed from inorganic mercury ions

go to document

MiBP

Mono-iso-butylphthalate is the primary metabolite of DiBP resulting from the elimination of one iso-butyl group.

go to document

MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono-4-methyloctyl ester is the primary metabolite of DINCH® after elimination of an ester rest.

go to document

MMP

Monomethyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DMP.

go to document

MnBP

Mono-n-butyl phthalate is the primary metabolite of DnBP resulting from the elimination of one butyl group.

go to document

MnOP

Mono-n-octyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DnOP.

go to document

MnPeP

Mono-n-pentyl phthalate is a primary metabolite of DnPeP.

go to document

Molluscicide

Chemical agent used to kill molluscs, especially snails and slugs

go to document

Mutagenicity

Potential of a substance or radiation to alter the genetic material of cells and thus increase the frequency of mutations

go to document

N

n-butyl paraben

n-butyl paraben (nBuP) is used as preservative in cosmetics in the European Union (EU) with exception of products for small children.

go to document

n-propyl paraben

n-propyl paraben (nPrP) is used as preservative in cosmetics in the European Union (EU) with exception of products for small children.

go to document

National Park

Clearly defined area protected against human interventions and environmental pollution by precautionary measures. A greater part of the area must meet the requirements of a nature reserve.

go to document

Nearly natural terrestrial ecosystems

Nearly natural ecosystems are exceptional in that they have preserved their ancient structure and function without significant human manipulation.

go to document

Nickel

Naturally occurring transition metal

go to document

Nonmetals

Only eighteen elements in the periodic table

go to document

NP Harz

Germany's largest forest national park

go to document

O

Octachlorostyrene

Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chlorinated organochlorine compound

go to document

OH-MiBP

OH-MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl)octyl ester is a secondary metabolite of DINCH®.

go to document

OH-MPHP

Mono(propyl-6-hydroxyheptyl) phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DPHP.

go to document

Organic layer/root network

The organic layer respectively the root network at urban green spaces is an important specimen because both are in direct contact with the atmosphere and thus with air pollutants and substances which are directly applied to the soil. Furthermore, substances which have been deposited on the vegetation enter the organic layer through litter.

go to document

Organo mercury compounds

Organic substances with at least one mercury atom

go to document

Organochloro pesticides

Organochloro hydrocarbons with insecticidal properties

go to document

Organometallic compounds

Organic substances with at least one metall atom

go to document

Organotin compounds

Class of organometallic compounds of tin

go to document

oxo-MINCH

Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate-mono(oxo-isononyl) ester is a secondary metabolite of DINCH®.

go to document

Oxo-MPHP

Mono(propyl-6-oxo-heptyl) phthalate is a secondary metabolite of DPHP.

go to document

P

p,p'-DDD

DDD is a metabolite of DDT with insecticidal properties. It is suspected to be carcinogenic and to act as endocrine disruptor.

go to document

p,p'-DDE

DDE is the main metabolite of DDT. It is even more persistent than the parent compound and is strongly accumulated by organisms. It is suspected to be carcinogenic, mutagenic and to act as endocrine disruptor.

go to document

Parabens

Preservatives in food and cosmetics

go to document

Particle-size distribution

Important parameter for the characterisation of soils

go to document

PCB101

PCB101 is a low chlorinated, relatively volatile PCB. Together with other low chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB28 and 52) it stands for acute contamination of the ambient air. It degrades rather fast and accumulation in organisms is lower compared to higher chlorinated congeners.

go to document

PCB118

PCB118 belongs to the toxicologically relevant group of dioxin-like PCBs (also known as WHO-PCBs) that have molecular-biological properties resembling those of dioxins and furans. They are highly toxic. Technical mixtures of PCB contain only trace amounts of dioxin-like PCB. They can occur as by-products of incineration processes.

go to document

PCB138

PCB138 is a higher chlorinated PCB. It is hardly degradable and accumulates strongly in organisms and the food web. Together with other high chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB153 and 180) it stands for long-term contamination mainly through food.

go to document

PCB153

PCB153 is a higher chlorinated PCB. It is hardly degradable and accumulates strongly in organisms and the food web. Together with other high chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB138 and 180) it stands for long-term contamination mainly through food.

go to document

PCB180

PCB180 is a higher chlorinated PCB. It is hardly degradable and accumulates strongly in organisms and the food web. Together with other high chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB138 and 153) it stands for long-term contamination mainly through food.

go to document

Pentachlorophenol

Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon and effective biocide

go to document

Pentyl paraben

The application of pentyl paraben (PeP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

go to document

Perchlorate

Salts of perchloric acid

go to document

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Persistent organic compounds in which the hydrogen atoms at the carbon skeleton are completely (perfluoroalkyl) or partially (polyfluoroalkyl) substituted by fluorine atoms.

go to document

Perfluorobutanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 4 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group; substitute for PFOS in many applications

go to document

Perfluorobutanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 4 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorodecanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 10 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

go to document

Perfluorodecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 10 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorododecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 12 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 7 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

go to document

Perfluoroheptanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 7 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorohexanesulfonate

Fluorocarbon with 6 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

go to document

Perfluorohexanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 6 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorononanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 9 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorooctanesulfonamide

Fluorocarbon with 8 C-atoms and one sulfonamide group

go to document

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Fluorocarbon with 8 C-atoms and one sulfonic acid group

go to document

Perfluorooctanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 8 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluoropentanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 5 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorotetradecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 14 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluorotridecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 13 C-atoms

go to document

Perfluoroundecanoic acid

Fluorocarbon with 11 C-atoms

go to document

Persistence

Property of substances to remain in the environment over long time without being altered by physical, chemical or biological processes

go to document

pH-value

pH-value as measure for the alkalinity or acidity of a medium

go to document

pH-value (potassium chloride)

The pH-value in a suspension of sample material and a diluted potassium solution corresponds to the potential acidity.

go to document

pH-value (water)

The pH in a water suspension is a measure for the actual acidity of the sample. It is related to the concentration of free hydrogen ions (H+) in the suspension.

go to document

Phenanthrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three connected six-membered rings

go to document

Phosphorus

Common element in the environment and constituent of many minerals

go to document

Phthalates and substitutes

General-purpose plasticizers for PVC and other polymers

go to document

Pine

A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.

go to document

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Persistent and toxic chlorinated compounds

go to document

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Group of organic compounds with at least three condensed six-membered rings

go to document

Polycyclic musks

Class of synthetic fragrances

go to document

Potassium

Naturally occurring alkali metal

go to document

Propiconazole

Fungicide used as biocide, e.g. in wood preservation, and as plant protection product.

go to document

Pubic hair

Ideal matrix for the detection of internal exposure to methylmercury.

go to document

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride. Thermoplastic polymer used, for instance, in flooring, upholstery, tubes, and electrical cable insulation

go to document

Pyrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with four connected six-membered rings

go to document

R

Reproductive toxicity

Potential of a substance or radiation to affect fertility and/or embryonic growth

go to document

Riverine ecosystems

Riverine ecosystems can be considered as the final link in the functional structure of the terrestrial environment, as they function as a sink and a vehicle for discharges from the mainland, which they pass on to the marine ecosystems.

go to document

Rodenticide

Chemical agent intended to kill rodents like rats and mice

go to document

Roe deer, one-year-old

The roe deer is the most common of the larger herbivores (first order-consumer) to be found in the wild in Europe.

go to document

RoHS

Restriction of Hazardous Substances. EU-Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronical equipment

go to document

S

Saliva

Via element analysis in saliva release of alloy components of dental (prothesis) materials can be assessed.

go to document

Sampling areas

The sampling areas have been selected to represent adequately the major types of ecosystems in Germany and taking into account the varying intensities of anthropogenic impact and land use.

go to document

Scalp hair

Ideal matrix for the detection of internal exposure to methylmercury.

go to document

Selenium

Relatively rare element that naturally occurs both in its elemental form and in many minerals

go to document

Soil

Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.

go to document

Specimen types

The specimen types have been selected in such a way as to permit load observations within both a spatial and a time framework, thereby providing optimum information about overall conditions in the various sampling areas.

go to document

Stable Isotopes

Atoms of one element with different weights

go to document

Standard deviation

Measure of variation around the mean value

go to document

Standard operating procedures

To achieve a high degree of quality assurance, every step in the procedure from sampling through transport, preparation and analysis of the specimen to long- term storage is the subject of binding Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for each type of specimen.

go to document

Stockholm Convention

POP-(Persistent Organic Pollutant) Convention. International agreement on the ban and restriction of certain persistent organic pollutants

go to document

Strontium

Alkaline earth metal with high reactivity that occurs naturally only in compounds with other elements

go to document

Students

Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

go to document

Subsoil

The subsoil (B horizon) is often enriched with clay, minerals or organic matter and is therefore also referred to as illuvial horizon. It is the main area of mineralisation. In many soil types the B horizon functions as water reservoir where water soluble pollutants accumulate. Furthermore, the channels of many burrowing soil organisms penetrate the B horizon thus facilitating the contaminant dissemination. The B horizon plays a major role in the cycle of matter because the roots of many plants penetrate through the B horizon and are exposed to the accumulated contaminants. In the subsoil, the samples are taken in the first subsoil horizon of up to 40 cm depth.

go to document

Sulfur

Ubiquitous element which naturally occurs in its elementary form as well as in sulfide- and sulfate minerals

go to document

Suspended particulate matter

Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase

go to document

T

Tebuconazole

Fungicide used in plant protection products as well as in biocidal products.

go to document

Teratogenicity

Potential of a substance or radiation to affect the growth and development of an embryo or fetus

go to document

Terrestrial samples

Samples of animals living on land and plants growing on land.

go to document

Thallium

Rare element which occurs naturally as trace element in many minerals

go to document

Thallus

Vegetation tissue of algae (not differentiated in stem, leave and root

go to document

Thousand needle weight

Weight of 1.000 needles of a tree in gram

go to document

Tidal creek or tideway

In- and outlet systems for the tidal current in the mudflat with a relatively stable course despite the  regular flooding

go to document

Topsoil

The topsoil (A horizon) is the upper layer of the mineral soil body with high biological activity. It is mostly darker in colour and contains more organic matter than the deeper layer. The topsoil is of special importance in the circulation of contaminants because it is the main root space of plants and the habitat of the majority of soil organism.

go to document

Total Bisphenol A

Total Bisphenol A is the sum of unconjugated and conjugated BPA.

go to document

Total Carbon (TC)

The total carbon content of a sample comprises the carbon of all inorganic and organic compounds and free carbon.

go to document

Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC)

The TIC of a sample is a measure for the inorganic carbon compounds like carbon dioxide, carbonates and bicarbonates.

go to document

Total Organic Carbon (TOC)

The TOC content in a sample is a measure for the organic matter which comprises all living and dead biomass.

go to document

Total protein

Indicator for the protein metabolism

go to document

Total volume (urine)

Essential additional parameter for the determination and assessment of renal function

go to document

toxicity

toxicity = poisonousness

go to document

Transect

Section of a landscape or sampling area defined according to certain criteria

go to document

Tributyltin

Organometallic compound of tin with three butyl groups

go to document

Triglycerides

Storage form of fatty acids and indicator for several diseases and the risk of thrombosis and vascular calcification

go to document

Triphenyltin

Organometallic compound of tin with three phenyl groups

go to document

Tsetse fly

Genus of flies and vector of the tropical human sleeping sickness and the animal trypanosomiasis (Nagana)

go to document

Tumour-promoting property

Potential of a substance to accelerate tumour growth

go to document

V

Viscosity

Thickness of fluids, suspensions and liquefied material. Measure for the inner resistance to deformation

go to document

W

water catchment area

Clearly definable geographical entity in a landscape which allows a quantification of material transport and conversion (input and output)

go to document

Water content

Parameter to calculate wet weight from dry weight and vice versa

go to document

Wet weight

Reference value for contaminant contents, based on  weight of fresh, undried material.
Synonym: fresh weight

go to document

Whole blood

Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in those chemicals are being accumulated.

go to document

Z

Zebra mussel

Common mussel species as invasive animal in rivers and lakes with high information level for water pollution

go to document

Zinc

Rather common element which occurs mainly in ores

go to document