formula: Mn; CAS Registry Number: 7439-96-5

Naturally occurring transition metal

Manganese is a widespread element which naturally occurs in minerals. It is mainly used in metal working industries. Further applications include for instance uses in electric- and electronic industry, chemical and pharmaceutical industry, glass- and ceramic production, drinking water and sewage treatment, aquaculture and agriculture. Natural background levels of manganese are found in air, soil, water and organisms. Anthropogenic activities may lead to higher environmental concentrations. Manganese is an essential element for all living organisms but still it has toxic properties. Toxicity, however, is low. More common are deficiencies. Organisms differ markedly in there Mn-tolerance. The bioaccumulation potential of manganese is high. Especially aquatic and some terrestrial plants can accumulate high amounts of this metal.


  • Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.
  • As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.
  • Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1985 - 2022

Extended information

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