formula: Mn; CAS Registry Number: 7439-96-5

Naturally occurring transition metal

Manganese is a widespread element which naturally occurs in minerals. It is mainly used in metal working industries. Further applications include for instance uses in electric- and electronic industry, chemical and pharmaceutical industry, glass- and ceramic production, drinking water and sewage treatment, aquaculture and agriculture. Natural background levels of manganese are found in air, soil, water and organisms. Anthropogenic activities may lead to higher environmental concentrations. Manganese is an essential element for all living organisms but still it has toxic properties. Toxicity, however, is low. More common are deficiencies. Organisms differ markedly in there Mn-tolerance. The bioaccumulation potential of manganese is high. Especially aquatic and some terrestrial plants can accumulate high amounts of this metal.


Common bladder wrack Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea
Common spruce A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
Pine A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
Lombardy poplar A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.
Beech As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.

Sampling area

BR/NP Berchtesgaden The only high mountains national park in Germany and an area of the Limestone Alps with international relevance
Saarländischer Verdichtungsraum Important, old-industrialised conurbation in Germany.
Bornhöveder Seengebiet Main water divide between the North- and Baltic Sea
NP Bayerischer Wald Germany's first national park
NP Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.
BR/NP Wattenmeere National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.
Verdichtungsraum Halle-Leipzig Region in the chemical triangle of Central Germany
NP Harz Germany's largest forest national park
Solling Second highest and largest low mountain range in Northern Germany
BR Pfälzerwald Germany's largest connected forest area in a range of low mountains
Oberbayerisches Tertiärhügelland The Upper Bavarian Tertiary Uplands are a part of the Southern German Molasse Basin

Sampling period

1985 - 2019