formula: Zn; CAS Registry Number: 7440-66-6

Rather common element which occurs mainly in ores

Other applications include those in electrical industry (batteries), in building industry, in chemical and in pharmaceutical industries.

It enters soils and waters through weathering of rocks, atmospheric deposition, waste water, sewage sludge, and landfill.

Zinc is essential for all organisms and body concentrations are efficiently regulated by homoeostasis in higher animals to prevent deficiency.
However, it also has toxic properties and can affect the development of organisms.

Several plants and animals are capable to accumulate zinc.

Recommended analysis examples


  • Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
  • Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase
  • Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea
  • As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.
  • As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.
  • Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.
  • Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1981 - 2022

Extended information

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