Indicator for renal function
The conductivity of urine is a measure for the renal excretion of minerals and salts (electrolytes). It is influenced, amongst others, by the volume and density of the urine.
In healthy humans the conductivity of blood and of the fluid volume of organs is about 16.3 mS/cm. A comparable value is found in urine. Long-term deviations from this physiological value may be indicative of renal dysfunctions, metabolic disorders or disorders of the cardiovascular system.
Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.
4 university cities as sampling areas.
2001 - 2019