Lindane (gamma-HCH)

γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-HCH; formula: C6H6Cl6; CAS Registry Number: 58-89-9
Structure of γ-HCH
Source: Wikipedia

Highly effective insecticide that was banned from agricultural use in 2002 and restricted in pharmaceutical use in 2007

γ-HCH is lipophilic and binds to soil particles. During rain and run-off it enters ground- and surface waters. In the atmosphere it may be transported over long distances adsorbed to dust particles.

In the environment, γ-HCH is persistent. It accumulates in organisms and is enriched in the food web (biomagnification). Moreover, there is evidence for carcinogenicity and endocrine disrupting activity.

Since 2002, the use of Lindane in agriculture is banned in Europe and in 2009 it was added to the Stockholm Convention. It is, however, still used in some veterinary and pharmaceutical products.


Bream Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
Suspended particulate matter Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase
Blue mussel One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
Eelpout As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.
Roe deer, one-year-old The roe deer is the most common of the larger herbivores (first order-consumer) to be found in the wild in Europe.
Feral pigeon A pigeon species home in nearly every city.
Soil Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.

Sampling area

BR/NP Berchtesgaden The only high mountains national park in Germany and an area of the Limestone Alps with international relevance
Saarländischer Verdichtungsraum Important, old-industrialised conurbation in Germany.
Bornhöveder Seengebiet Main water divide between the North- and Baltic Sea
Rhein Longest river in Germany
NP Bayerischer Wald Germany's first national park
NP Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.
BR/NP Wattenmeere National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.
Elbe Fourth largest river basin in Central Europe
Verdichtungsraum Halle-Leipzig Region in the chemical triangle of Central Germany
NP Harz Germany's largest forest national park
Solling Second highest and largest low mountain range in Northern Germany
BR Pfälzerwald Germany's largest connected forest area in a range of low mountains
Oberbayerisches Tertiärhügelland The Upper Bavarian Tertiary Uplands are a part of the Southern German Molasse Basin
Donau Second largest river in Europe

Sampling period

1985 - 2018