Class of organometallic compounds of tin
Organotin compounds occur naturally as methyl-compounds. All other organotin compounds result from anthropogenic activities.
Mono- and Dibutyltin compounds are used as stabilizers in PVC production and as catalysts for silicones and polyurethane foams. Triorganotin compounds are effective biocides and are used, e.g., as pesticides, antifouling agents, wood preservatives, disinfectants and as preservatives for materials such as textiles, leather, synthetics, adhesives and paints. Octyltin compounds are also used as PVC stabilisers mainly in food packaging, whereas tetraorganotin compounds are needed for the synthesis of tri-, di-, und monoorganotin compounds.
Organotin compounds may enter the environment during production, uses (e.g. leaching of mono- and diorganotin compounds from PVC pipes) and application (e.g. triorganotin compounds in antifouling agents, biocides etc.).
Under anaerobic conditions these compounds are persistent. They have a high potential for bioaccumulation which is, however, highly dependent on the respective biota species.
The toxicity of organotin compounds depends on nature and number of the alcyl- and aryl-substitutes. Basically, the toxicity ranks as follows: Mono- < Di- << Tri- >> Tetra-organotin compounds.
Since 2003, antifouling agents containing tributyltin compounds are banned in the EU. Since 2006, marketing of biocides containing tributyltin- and triphenyltin-compounds is banned.
Organometallic compound of tin with three butyl groups
Organometallic compound of tin with three phenyl groups
Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.
Important, old-industrialised conurbation in Germany.
Main water divide between the North- and Baltic Sea
Longest river in Germany
National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.
National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.
Fourth largest river basin in Central Europe
Region in the chemical triangle of Central Germany
1985 - 2006