TPT cation, TPT, triphenyltin cation

Organometallic compound of tin with three phenyl groups

Triphenyltin (TPT) compounds are highly effective biocides. Along with tributyltin compounds, TPT compounds were components of many antifouling paints for ships (until about 1990). Furthermore, they are used as fungicides in agriculture. In Germany, however, registration was withdrawn in 2001.

TPT compounds enter the environment during production and use. They are lipophilic and adsorb strongly to particles. Degradation is relatively slow.

The compounds have a high potential for bioaccumulation. They are highly toxic, reproductive toxic and strong endocrine disruptors (androgenic effects).

Since 2003, antifouling agents containing organotin compounds are banned in the EU, and since 2006, marketing of biocides containing triphenyltin is prohibited.


Bream Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
Blue mussel One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
Eelpout As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.

Sampling area

Saarländischer Verdichtungsraum Important, old-industrialised conurbation in Germany.
Bornhöveder Seengebiet Main water divide between the North- and Baltic Sea
Rhein Longest river in Germany
NP Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.
BR/NP Wattenmeere National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.
Elbe Fourth largest river basin in Central Europe
Verdichtungsraum Halle-Leipzig Region in the chemical triangle of Central Germany

Sampling period

1985 - 2006