TPT cation, TPT, triphenyltin cation

Organometallic compound of tin with three phenyl groups

Triphenyltin (TPT) compounds are highly effective biocides. Along with tributyltin compounds, TPT compounds were components of many antifouling paints for ships (until about 1990). Furthermore, they are used as fungicides in agriculture. In Germany, however, registration was withdrawn in 2001.

TPT compounds enter the environment during production and use. They are lipophilic and adsorb strongly to particles. Degradation is relatively slow.

The compounds have a high potential for bioaccumulation. They are highly toxic, reproductive toxic and strong endocrine disruptors (androgenic effects).

Since 2003, antifouling agents containing organotin compounds are banned in the EU, and since 2006, marketing of biocides containing triphenyltin is prohibited.


  • Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
  • One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
  • As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1985 - 2006