Parabens

Esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid
Structures of Methyl paraben, Ethyl paraben, iso-Propyl paraben,   n-Propyl paraben, iso-Butyl paraben, n-Butyl paraben, Pentyl paraben,   Heptyl paraben, Benzyl paraben
Structures of analyzed parabens
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Preservatives in food and cosmetics

Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. They are used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. The application in Europe is regulated through the cosmetics and food additives regulations (Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 and (EU) No. 1129/2011 respectively).

Some parabens showed endocrine effects in animal studies. This led to legislative restrictions of most parabens in 2014.

Substances

Methyl paraben Methyl paraben (MEP) is a preservative which is used in cosmetics and food. In the European Union (EU) methyl paraben and its natrium salt are listed in the regulation of food additives (Regulation (EU) No. 1129/2011) as E numbers E218 and E219.
Ethyl paraben Ethyl paraben (EtP) is a preservative which is used in cosmetics and food. In the European Union (EU) methyl paraben and its natrium salt are listed in the regulation of food additives (Regulation (EU) No. 1129/2011) as E numbers E214 and E215.
iso-propyl paraben The application of iso-propyl paraben (iPrP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.
n-propyl paraben n-propyl paraben (nPrP) is used as preservative in cosmetics in the European Union (EU) with exception of products for small children.
iso-butyl paraben The application of iso-butyl paraben (iBuP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.
n-butyl paraben n-butyl paraben (nBuP) is used as preservative in cosmetics in the European Union (EU) with exception of products for small children.
Pentyl paraben The application of pentyl paraben (PeP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.
Heptyl paraben The application of heptyl paraben (HeP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.
Benzyl paraben The application of benzyl paraben (BzP) as a preservative in cosmetics and food is prohibited in the European Union (EU) since 2014.

Specimen

Students Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Sampling area

Sampling sites (humans) 4 university cities as sampling areas.

Sampling period

1995 - 2012

Extended information

Links to external information and legislation

Literature