N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

N-Ethyl-pyrrolidone; ethylpyrrolidone; NEP; formula: C6H11NO; CAS Registry Number: 2687-91-4
Structure of N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone
Source: PubChem

A versatile solvent classified as reproductive toxicant. Substitute of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)

The sum of import and export of N-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in and into Europe is estimated to be between 100 and 1,000 tons. Classification of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as reproductive toxicant in 2009 it has been increasingly substituted by NEP. 
Because of the similar physico-chemical properties of NEP and NMP a substitution seems to be possible in nearly every field of use. However, little is known about the specific applications NEP is used in.

The toxicological profile of NEP is also similar to NMP. Because of this, in 2013 NEP was also classified as reproductive toxicant.

Substances

5-Hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone Oxidized metabolite of N-Ethyl-pyrrolidone
2-Hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide Oxidized metabolite of N-Ethyl-pyrrolidone. Metabolised by oxidation of 5-Hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone

Specimen

Students Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Sampling area

Sampling sites (humans) 4 university cities as sampling areas.

Sampling period

1991 - 2014