Flame Retardants

Flame retardants reduce the flammability of objects

Flame retardants are substances designed to restrict, slow or prevent the further development if ignition or spread of fires. They are used preventively wherever potential ignition sources and combustible materials are located, such as in electronics, computers, vehicles, building and insulation materials, upholstered furniture and carpets.

According to the chemical composition, the group of flame retardants is classified into halogenated flame retardants (HFR), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFR), nitrogen-based flame retardants and inorganic flame retardants. HFR include brominated flame retardants (BFR) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and chlorinated flame retardants (CFR) such as Mirex and Dechlorane Plus.


Hexabromocyclododecane Brominated flame retardant in polystyrene foams and other plastics


Herring gull Inshore, the herring gull mainly feeds from the sea: upon fish, mussels, and crabs.

Sampling area

NP Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.
BR/NP Wattenmeere National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.

Sampling period

1988 - 2008