Students

A student fills in the questionnaire

Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

The students come usually from different regions in Germany to the universities and are selected for non-specific exposure. With individuals and groups moving home frequently in a mobile society, it is assumed that almost the entire country is represented.

At each of the four sampling places about 100 students donate blood and a 24h-urine sample every year. Until 2004 they provided additionally saliva, scalp hair, and pubic hair. The anamnesis data and habits are collected in a standardised questionnaire.

Target organs/Matrices

Blood plasma Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in that chemicals are being accumulated
Whole blood Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in those chemicals are being accumulated.
24h-sampling urine Particularly suitable matrix for human biomonitoring because chemicals and/or their metabolites excreted with urine have been in direct contact with the organism. Therefore, measurements in urine can give valid information regarding the internal human body burden.
Saliva Via element analysis in saliva release of alloy components of dental (prothesis) materials can be assessed.
Scalp hair Ideal matrix for the detection of internal exposure to methylmercury.
Pubic hair Ideal matrix for the detection of internal exposure to methylmercury.

Sampling area

Sampling sites (humans) 4 university cities as sampling areas.

Analytes

Metals Eighty percent of all elements on earth are metals
Nonmetals Only eighteen elements in the periodic table
Chlorohydrocarbons Group of organic compounds with at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom
Phthalates and substitutes General-purpose plasticizers for PVC and other polymers
Bisphenol A Commercially important precursor of polymers like polycarbonates and epoxy resins
Biocides and plant protection products Chemical agents against harmful organisms and for plant protection
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances Persistent organic compounds in which the hydrogen atoms at the carbon skeleton are completely (perfluoroalkyl) or partially (polyfluoroalkyl) substituted by fluorine atoms.
N-alkyl-pyrrolidones
Parabens Preservatives in food and cosmetics
Supplementary parameters Additional information for the interpretation of contamination data

Sampling period

1981 - 2017

Biometric parameters

Age  
Sex  
Smoking  
Body-Mass-Index  
Count of tooth surfaces with amalgam fillings