Class of non-ionic surfactants and their degradation products
Alkylphenols are precursors and degradation products of the alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants.
Alkylphenol ethoxylates belong to the so called non-ionic surfactants. They are used, e.g., in textile-, leather-, and metalworking industries and are applied as industrial cleaners, bore- and flotation additives, moistening agents, solvents and levelling agents in photo industry.
In the environment, alkylphenol ethoxylates are successively degraded to the respective alkylphenols.
The alkylphenols are more toxic than their parent compounds. Under anaerobic conditions they are persistent and may accumulate strongly in organisms. Alkylphenols are endocrine disruptors with estrogenic activity.
The commercially most relevant alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates are the 4-nonyl- und 4-octyl-compounds.
Since 1986 a voluntary self-restriction of German industries resulted in a strong decrease of alkylphenol ethoxylates in cleaners.
4-tert-octylphenolAlkylphenol with a C8-Alkyl-chain
4-NonylphenolAlkylphenol with a C9-alkyl-chain
4-Nonylphenol monoethoxylateNonylphenol with one ethoxylate group
A precursor used for the production of tensides
Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.
Important, old-industrialised conurbation in Germany.
Longest river in Germany
National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.
National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.
Fourth largest river basin in Central Europe
4 university cities as sampling areas.
1985 - 2021