Whole blood

Whole blood sample
Photo: UKM Münster

Ideal matrix for most chemicals because it is in contact with the whole organism and in equilibrium with the organs and tissues in those chemicals are being accumulated.

Whole blood consists of several compartments; essential and accidental substances are differently distributed in single compartments. This is true for hydrophilic and lipophilic substance classes. Depending on distribution of a substance between blood plasma and cell-compartment of the blood must be decided whether analyses in whole blood or blood plasma make sense. Therefore, collecting whole blood is suitable to reflect the total exposure to pollutants.

Guideline for Sampling and Sample Processing Whole Blood and Blood Plasma (2015) - IBMT

Richtlinie zur Probenahme und Probenbearbeitung Vollblut und Blutplasma (2011) - UKM

Recommended analysis examples

Sampling area

Sampling sites (humans) 4 university cities as sampling areas.


Metals Eighty percent of all elements on earth are metals

Sampling period

1981 - 2019

Extended information