Nonmetals

Only eighteen elements in the periodic table

Nonmetals lack the typical characteristics of metals. They are poor conductors of electricity and heat and are not ductile. In their solid state they are rather dull and brittle. Compared to metals their density, melting and boiling points are lower. Nevertheless, the distinction between nonmetals, metalloids and semi-conductors is not always clear because modifications of one element may exert quite different properties, e.g. graphite and diamond, two modifications of the nonmetal carbon.
The group of nonmetals comprises halogens, noble gases, and the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur and selenium. Except selenium the latter are major elements of all living organisms.

Substances

  • Common element in the environment and constituent of many minerals
  • Ubiquitous element which naturally occurs in its elementary form as well as in sulfide- and sulfate minerals
  • Ubiquitous toxic metalloid
  • Relatively rare element that naturally occurs both in its elemental form and in many minerals

Specimen

  • Common mussel species as invasive animal in rivers and lakes with high information level for water pollution
  • Bioindicator in rivers and lakes
  • Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase
  • Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea
  • One of the most important edible mussel species common in the North and Baltic Sea
  • As the only viviparous fish in German nearshore waters, it is a bioindicator in nearshore coastal marine ecosystems.
  • Inshore, the herring gull mainly feeds from the sea: upon fish, mussels, and crabs.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
  • A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.
  • As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.
  • The roe deer is the most common of the larger herbivores (first order-consumer) to be found in the wild in Europe.
  • A pigeon species home in nearly every city.
  • As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).
  • As an organism living at ground level, it is a major driver of the decomposition of organic material (e.g. plant litter).
  • Soil is livelihood and biosphere for humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. All the substances brought in are transported, transformed and/or accumulated in the soil.
  • Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.

Sampling area

Sampling period

1985 - 2019