A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.
The pine is widespread in Central Europe due to its popularity with forestry managers and as a result its incidence is high. Its suitability as a specimen type for the Environmental Specimen Bank is founded on its economic and ecological significance, our considerable understanding of its ecology, population genetics, sensitivity and patterns of accumulation in relation to many hazardous substances.
The target organ is the one-year-old shoot which, when sampled in spring from February to late May before sprouting begins, presents a comprehensive picture of winter pollution in the environment, unlike the deciduous beech and poplar.
The information provided by this specimen type is analogous to that from the spruce, which means that is can be used as a substitute for spruce in areas where pine is the numerically predominant of the two, e.g. in the Düben Heath (Dübener Heide) sampling area.
Recommended analysis examples
|Dübener Heide||Region in the chemical triangle of Central Germany.|
|Metals||Eighty percent of all elements on earth are metals|
|Nonmetals||Only eighteen elements in the periodic table|
|Chlorohydrocarbons||Group of organic compounds with at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom|
|Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons||Group of organic compounds with at least three condensed six-membered rings|
|Supplementary parameters||Additional information for the interpretation of contamination data|
1991 - 2012
|Needles to stems relation|
|Degree of needle density|
Links to external information and legislation
Bestimmung von Dioxinen, Furanen, dioxinähnlichen PCB und Indikator-PCB in Fichten- und Kieferntrieben aus der Umweltprobenbank des Bundes
Körner, Wolfgang; Schädel, Silke; Waller, Ulrich; Köhler, Jutta
Augsburg: Bayerisches Landesamt für Umweltschutz, 2005. - 51, 2005
Retrospective Monitoring of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in Pine- and Spruce-Shoots - Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank
Rappolder, Marianne; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Waller, Ulrich; Koerner, Wolfgang
Organohalogen Compounds 66 (2004), 1842 - 1847, 2004
Temporal Trends and Spatial Distribution of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB in Pine and Spruce Shoots
Rappolder, Marianne; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Schädel, Silke; Waller, Ulrich; Körner, Wolfgang
Chemosphere 67 (2007), 9, 1887–1896, 2007