Rare element which occurs naturally as trace element in many minerals
It is of limited commercial importance. Thallium is used e.g. in metal working industry, in the production of special-purpose glass and in measuring technology. Thallium sulfate is highly toxic and used as rodenticide and insecticide. It is banned, however, in many countries, e.g. Germany, Switzerland and the USA.
Thallium is released into the environment during weathering of rocks and anthropogenic activities. Water contaminations are mostly caused by industrial waste waters and atmospheric deposition. In aquatic ecosystems, thallium is bioavailable and quickly accumulated by organisms.
Through plants and animals thallium may enter the human food chain.
Environmentally relevant characteristics of thallium and its compounds include:
- in laboratory tests: carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity
- high bioaccumulation potential: Thallium is accumulated by plants and animals.
Recommended analysis examples
|Common spruce||A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.|
|Pine||A major primary producer in semi-natural and anthropogenic affected ecosystems.|
|Lombardy poplar||A deciduous tree typical of ecosystems close to dense conurbations and an indicator for the characterisation of the immission situation during the vegetation period.|
|Beech||As the most dominant deciduous tree species in Central Europe, it plays a significant role in most nearly natural and also anthropogenically influenced forest ecosystems up to an altitude of 1100 m.|
|Bream||Bioindicator in rivers and lakes|
|Common bladder wrack||Common brown alga of the coastal areas of the North and Baltic Sea|
|Suspended particulate matter||Fine insoluble mineral or organic particles in the water phase|
|Students||Student groups with an even number of female and male students at the age of 20 to 29.|
|BR/NP Berchtesgaden||The only high mountains national park in Germany and an area of the Limestone Alps with international relevance|
|Saarländischer Verdichtungsraum||Important, old-industrialised conurbation in Germany.|
|Bornhöveder Seengebiet||Main water divide between the North- and Baltic Sea|
|Rhein||Longest river in Germany|
|NP Bayerischer Wald||Germany's first national park|
|NP Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft||National Park in the largest brackish water (Bodden) habitat of the world.|
|BR/NP Wattenmeere||National park in the world largest connected sand and mud flats.|
|Elbe||Fourth largest river area in Central Europe.|
|Dübener Heide||Region in the chemical triangle of Central Germany.|
|NP Harz||The Harz National Park is Germany's largest forest national park.|
|Solling||Second highest and largest low mountain range in Northern Germany|
|BR Pfälzerwald||Germany's largest connected forest area in a range of low mountains.|
|Oberbayerisches Tertiärhügelland||The Upper Bavarian Tertiary Uplands are a part of the Southern German Molasse Basin.|
|Donau||Second largest river in Europe.|
|Sampling sites (humans)||4 university cities as sampling areas.|
1985 - 2011